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Last updated: Wed, 16 Mar 2005

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XLVI. Firebird/InterBase Functions


Firebird/InterBase is a relational database offering many ANSI SQL-92 features that runs on Linux, Windows, and a variety of Unix platforms. Firebird/InterBase offers excellent concurrency, high performance, and powerful language support for stored procedures and triggers. It has been used in production systems, under a variety of names since 1981.

InterBase is the name of the closed-source variant of this RDBMS that was developed by Borland/Inprise. More information about InterBase is available at

Firebird is a commercially independent project of C and C++ programmers, technical advisors and supporters developing and enhancing a multi-platform relational database management system based on the source code released by Inprise Corp (now known as Borland Software Corp) under the InterBase Public License v.1.0 on 25 July, 2000. More information about Firebird is available at

Poznámka: This extension supports InterBase versions 5 and up and all versions of Firebird. Support for InterBase version 5.x will be dropped in PHP 5.

This database uses a single quote (') character for escaping, a behavior similar to the Sybase database, add to your php.ini the following directive:

magic_quotes_sybase = On


To enable InterBase support configure PHP --with-interbase[=DIR], where DIR is the InterBase base install directory, which defaults to /usr/interbase.

Note to Win32 Users: In order to enable this module on a Windows environment, you must copy gds32.dll from the DLL folder of the PHP/Win32 binary package to the SYSTEM32 folder of your windows machine. (Ex: C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32 or C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32). In case you installed the InterBase database server on the same machine PHP is running on, you will have this DLL already. Therefore you don't need to copy gds32.dll from the DLL folder.

Runtime Konfigurácia

Spr�vanie tejto funkcie je ovplyvnen� nastaveniami v php.ini.

Tabuľka 1. InterBase configuration options

ibase.default_dbNULLPHP_INI_SYSTEMAvailable since PHP 5.0.0.
ibase.default_charsetNULLPHP_INI_ALLAvailable since PHP 5.0.0.
ibase.timestampformat"%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"PHP_INI_ALL 
Pre �al�ie detaily a defin�cie PHP_INI_* kon�t�nt, si pozrite ini_set() dokument�ciu.

Tu je kr�tke vysvetlenie konfigura�n�ch direkt�v.

ibase.allow_persistent boolean

Whether to allow persistent connections to Firebird/InterBase.

ibase.max_persistent integer

The maximum number of persistent Firebird/InterBase connections per process. New connections created with ibase_pconnect() will be non-persistent if this number would be exceeded.

ibase.max_links integer

The maximum number of Firebird/InterBase connections per process, including persistent connections.

ibase.default_db string

The default database to connect to when ibase_[p]connect() is called without specifying a database name. If this value is set and SQL safe mode is enabled, no other connections than to this database will be allowed.

ibase.default_user string

The user name to use when connecting to a database if no user name is specified.

ibase.default_password string

The password to use when connecting to a database if no password is specified.

ibase.default_charset string

The character set to use when connecting to a database if no character set is specified.

ibase.timestampformat string

ibase.dateformat string

ibase.timeformat string

These directives are used to set the date and time formats that are used when returning dates and times from a result set, or when binding arguments to date and time parameters.

Preddefinované Konštanty

Kon�tanty uveden� ni�ie s� definovan� t�mto roz��ren�m a bud� dostupn� iba ke� roz��renie bolo bu� kompilovan� do PHP alebo dynamicky na��tan� za behu (runtime).

The following constants can be passed to ibase_trans() to specify transaction behaviour.

Tabuľka 2. Firebird/InterBase transaction flags

IBASE_DEFAULT The default transaction settings are to be used. This default is determined by the client library, which defines it as IBASE_WRITE|IBASE_CONCURRENCY|IBASE_WAIT in most cases.
IBASE_READStarts a read-only transaction.
IBASE_WRITEStarts a read-write transaction.
IBASE_CONSISTENCYStarts a transaction with the isolation level set to 'consistency', which means the transaction cannot read from tables that are being modified by other concurrent transactions.
IBASE_CONCURRENCYStarts a transaction with the isolation level set to 'concurrency' (or 'snapshot'), which means the transaction has access to all tables, but cannot see changes that were committed by other transactions after the transaction was started.
IBASE_COMMITTEDStarts a transaction with the isolation level set to 'read committed'. This flag should be combined with either IBASE_REC_VERSION or IBASE_REC_NO_VERSION. This isolation level allows access to changes that were committed after the transaction was started. If IBASE_REC_NO_VERSION was specified, only the latest version of a row can be read. If IBASE_REC_VERSION was specified, a row can even be read when a modification to it is pending in a concurrent transaction.
IBASE_WAITIndicated that a transaction should wait and retry when a conflict occurs.
IBASE_NOWAITIndicated that a transaction should fail immediately when a conflict occurs.

The following constants can be passed to ibase_fetch_row(), ibase_fetch_assoc() or ibase_fetch_object() to specify fetch behaviour.

Tabuľka 3. Firebird/InterBase fetch flags

IBASE_FETCH_BLOBSAlso available as IBASE_TEXTfor backward compatibility. Causes BLOB contents to be fetched inline, instead of being fetched as BLOB identifiers.
IBASE_FETCH_ARRAYSCauses arrays to be fetched inline. Otherwise, array identifiers are returned. Array identifiers can only be used as arguments to INSERT operations, as no functions to handle array identifiers are currently available.
IBASE_UNIXTIMECauses date and time fields not to be returned as strings, but as UNIX timestamps (the number of seconds since the epoch, which is 1-Jan-1970 0:00 UTC). Might be problematic if used with dates before 1970 on some systems.

The following constants are used to pass requests and options to the service API functions (ibase_server_info(), ibase_db_info (), ibase_backup(), ibase_restore () and ibase_maintain_db()). Please refer to the Firebird/InterBase manuals for the meaning of these options.








Options to ibase_backup()()








Options to ibase_restore()

























Options to ibase_maintain_db()






Options to ibase_db_info()









Options to ibase_server_info()

ibase_add_user --  Add a user to a security database (only for IB6 or later)
ibase_affected_rows --  Return the number of rows that were affected by the previous query
ibase_backup --  Initiates a backup task in the service manager and returns immediately
ibase_blob_add --  Add data into a newly created blob
ibase_blob_cancel --  Cancel creating blob
ibase_blob_close --  Close blob
ibase_blob_create --  Create a new blob for adding data
ibase_blob_echo --  Output blob contents to browser
ibase_blob_get --  Get len bytes data from open blob
ibase_blob_import --  Create blob, copy file in it, and close it
ibase_blob_info --  Return blob length and other useful info
ibase_blob_open --  Open blob for retrieving data parts
ibase_close --  Close a connection to an InterBase database
ibase_commit_ret -- Commit a transaction without closing it
ibase_commit -- Commit a transaction
ibase_connect --  Open a connection to an InterBase database
ibase_db_info --  Request statistics about a database
ibase_delete_user --  Delete a user from a security database (only for IB6 or later)
ibase_drop_db --  Drops a database
ibase_errcode --  Return an error code
ibase_errmsg --  Return error messages
ibase_execute -- Execute a previously prepared query
ibase_fetch_assoc --  Fetch a result row from a query as an associative array
ibase_fetch_object -- Get an object from a InterBase database
ibase_fetch_row -- Fetch a row from an InterBase database
ibase_field_info --  Get information about a field
ibase_free_event_handler --  Cancels a registered event handler
ibase_free_query --  Free memory allocated by a prepared query
ibase_free_result -- Free a result set
ibase_gen_id --  Increments the named generator and returns its new value
ibase_maintain_db --  Execute a maintenance command on the database server
ibase_modify_user --  Modify a user to a security database (only for IB6 or later)
ibase_name_result --  Assigns a name to a result set
ibase_num_fields --  Get the number of fields in a result set
ibase_num_params --  Return the number of parameters in a prepared query
ibase_param_info --  Return information about a parameter in a prepared query
ibase_pconnect --  Open a persistent connection to an InterBase database
ibase_prepare --  Prepare a query for later binding of parameter placeholders and execution
ibase_query -- Execute a query on an InterBase database
ibase_restore --  Initiates a restore task in the service manager and returns immediately
ibase_rollback_ret -- Roll back a transaction without closing it
ibase_rollback -- Roll back a transaction
ibase_server_info --  Request information about a database server
ibase_service_attach --  Connect to the service manager
ibase_service_detach --  Disconnect from the service manager
ibase_set_event_handler --  Register a callback function to be called when events are posted
ibase_timefmt --  Sets the format of timestamp, date and time type columns returned from queries
ibase_trans -- Begin a transaction
ibase_wait_event --  Wait for an event to be posted by the database

ibase_add_user> <hw_api->userlist
Last updated: Wed, 16 Mar 2005
add a note add a note User Contributed Notes
Firebird/InterBase Functions
fortega at uamericas dot net
01-Jul-2007 02:11
Here is a minimalistic code example. Be sure to create an user and a database in order to make it work.

// Minimalistic code example

// Connection
$db = '/path/to/database.gdb';
$user = 'username';
$password = 'password';
$res = ibase_connect($db,$dbuser,$dbpass) or die("<br>" . ibase_errmsg());

// Query
$sql="SELECT * FROM table;"
$result=ibase_query($res,$sql) or die(ibase_errmsg());
// use $row->FIELDNAME not $row->fieldname
print $row->FIELDNAME;

// Closing
ibase_close($res) or die("<br>" . ibase_errmsg());

The following code can be used when creating tables in order to get auto incrementing fields:


// This function generates an autoincrement field, such as MySQL AUTO_INCREMENT.
function generate_autoincrement($tablename,$primarykey){
// * Generator
dbexec('CREATE GENERATOR GEN_' . $tablename . '_PK;');
// * Trigger
dbexec('CREATE TRIGGER INC_' . $primarykey . ' FOR ' . $tablename
. chr(13) . 'AS'
. chr(13) . 'BEGIN'
. chr(13) . 'IF (NEW.' . $primarykey . ' IS NULL) THEN'
. chr(13) . 'NEW.' . $primarykey . '= GEN_ID(GEN_' . $tablename . '_PK, 1);'
. chr(13) . 'END');

Usage: <?php generate_autoincrement('table','column name'); ?>
chrisg at cordell dot com dot au
03-Jun-2004 11:59
Simple function to retrieve the results of an SQL statement into an array, will also cater for BLOB fields:

function interbase_sql_exec ($sql) {
   $dataArr = array();
   $host = "svrname:path\filename.GDB";
   $username = "whatever";
   $password = "******";
   $connection = ibase_connect ($host, $username, $password,'ISO8859_1', '100', '1');
   $rid = @ibase_query ($connection, $sql);
   if ($rid===false) errorHandle(ibase_errmsg(),$sql);
   $coln = ibase_num_fields($rid);
   $blobFields = array();
   for ($i=0; $i < $coln; $i++) {
       $col_info = ibase_field_info($rid, $i);
       if ($col_info["type"]=="BLOB") $blobFields[$i] = $col_info["name"];
   while ($row = ibase_fetch_row ($rid)) {
       foreach ($blobFields as $field_num=>$field_name) {
           $blobid = ibase_blob_open($row[$field_num]);
           $row[$field_num] = ibase_blob_get($blobid,102400);
       $dataArr[] = $row;
   ibase_close ($connection);
   return $dataArr;
felixlee at singnet dot com dot sg
02-Jul-2003 11:33
Here's an example for getting results back from stored procedure in firebird.
The example make use of the stored procedure in Employee.gdb and the show_langs procedure.

$host = 'localhost:X:/firebird/examples/Employee.gdb';

$dbh = ibase_connect ( $host, $username, $password ) or die ("error in db connect");
 $stmt="Select * from SHOW_LANGS('SRep',4,'Italy')";
 $query = ibase_prepare($stmt);
$row = ibase_fetch_row($rs);

echo $row[0];

/* free result */

/* close db */
lars at dybdahl dot net
20-Sep-2002 07:32
It is not possible to use interbase/firebird without initiating transactions. It seems that transactions are not automatically committed or rolled back at the end of a script, so remember to end all interbase enabled scripts with ibase_rollback() or ibase_commit().

Worse is, that if you use ibase_pconnect (recommended), transactions survive from one request to the next. So that if you don't rollback your transaction at the end of the script, another user's request might continue the transaction that the first request opened.

This has two implications:
1) Clicking refresh in your browser won't make you see newer data, because you still watch data from the same transaction.
2) Some php scripts might fail occassionally and not fail in other occasions, depending on with apache server thread and thereby which transaction they start using.

Unfortunately, there is no such thing as
if (ibase_intransaction()) ibase_rollback();

so be sure that ALL your scripts end with an ibase_rollback() or ibase_commit();
interbase at almico dot com
05-Sep-2002 02:24
If you are using VirtualHosts with Apache, you might find useful the following directive:

php_flag magic_quotes_sybase on

Use it in any VirtualHost and it will be set locally to that VirtualHost without interfering with any global setting.
This is an example:

<VirtualHost 555.666.777.888>
   DirectoryIndex index.php index.htm
   php_flag magic_quotes_sybase on
theynich_s at yahoo dot com
11-May-2002 11:16
Hello PHP Mania,

i have made a paging for PHP with Interbase...... :)

i hope it usefull and work....:)

it`s a litle bit of example :

$connection = ibase_connect($yourdb, $user, $password);

$filename = BASENAME(__FILE__);
$strsql = "Your SQL";
$result = ibase_query($connection, $strsql);

function ibase_num_rows($query) { //I have pick it from
 $i = 0;
 while (ibase_fetch_row($query)) {
return $i;
$nrow = ibase_num_rows($result);//sum of row

$strSQL = "your SQL";
$result = ibase_query($connection, $strSQL);

if (!isset($page))
  $page = 1;

$$i = 0;
$recperpage = 4;
$norecord = ($page - 1) * $recperpage;
if ($norecord){
  while($j < $norecord and list($code, $name)= ibase_fetch_row($result)){

echo "<table>";
while (list($code, $name)= ibase_fetch_row($result) and $i < $recperpage){

        <td width="5%"><? echo $code; ?></td>
        <td><? echo $name; ?></td>

$incr = $page + 1;
if ($page > 1) $decr = $page - 1;

$numOfPage = ceil($nrow/$recperpage);
<td colspan="3" align="center"><?if ($page <= 1)
                    echo "<span>Prev</span>";
                      echo "<a href=".$filename."?page=".$decr.">Prev</a>";
                <?if ($page == $numOfPage)
                    echo "<span>Next</span>";
                      echo "<a href=".$filename."?page=".$incr.">Next</a>";?>
johan at essay dot org
06-Aug-2000 07:24
For those who have problem with returning values from Stored Procedures in PHP-Interbase,  I have found a solution.   Use a select sentence like this:
select * from sp_prodecure(param, ...)
However, it is important that the procedure has a SUSPEND statement or else the procedure won't return any values.

But the "message length" (see above note) bug that you encounter when you try to execute a procedure should be fixed !

ibase_add_user> <hw_api->userlist
Last updated: Wed, 16 Mar 2005
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